Saturday, December 14, 2019

Today -100: December 14, 1919: I cannot leave Paris empty handed


Headline of the Day -100: 

Insert your own Trump joke here.

Poland invades Lithuania.

Austrian Chancellor Karl Renner says if the Peace Conference fails to provide food aid for Austria, he will resign. “I cannot leave Paris empty handed,” he says. Former emperor Charles offers his own solution to all Austria’s problems – the article says Austria-Hungary, but I wonder if Chuck used those exact words? – restoration of the monarchy. Not him, but his son. He also opposes union with Germany.

Sen. Hiram Johnson, former governor of California and Theodore Roosevelt’s running mate in 1912, announces that he will run for president.

Early into prohibition, the dead from bootleg booze are beginning to stack up.

Italy will destroy all mail addressed to Trieste, Austria or Trieste, Jugoslavia rather than Trieste, Italy.


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Friday, December 13, 2019

Today -100: December 13, 1919: Of arks, rule by public opinion, emperors, and brontosaurs


Emma Goldman withdraws her appeal against deportation so that she can join the “Soviet Ark” of hundreds of Russians being sent back in a couple of weeks. Also, it increasingly sounds like they’ll be sent to Soviet Russia rather than White Russia. Goldman has lived in the US for 34 years.

Colorado ratifies the women’s suffrage Amendment. 22 down, 14 to go, I believe.

Headline of the Day -100: 


One assumes this was written before the stroke.

The former Austrian emperor Charles, living in exile in Switzerland and suffering financially from the exchange rate, asks Czechoslovakia to allow him to live in Prague. They say no.

A Belgian big-game named Gapelle claims to have tracked a brontosaurus or something like it in the Belgian Congo. He shot at it but failed to hit it. Bad luck.


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Thursday, December 12, 2019

Today -100: December 12, 1919: Of booms and coal


Old Guard Republican leaders (assembled at a meeting of Republican state chairmen) are moving away from their previous strategy of heading off Gen. Leonard Wood’s candidacy for president by blowing air into the campaigns of a bunch of “favorite son” candidates, and now favor picking one candidate and “booming” him. And it looks like that candidate is Warren G. Harding, who is too bland to have any enemies.

Fuel Administrator Harry Garfield resigns in protest of the coal strike being settled in a way that may eventually result in higher prices for the public.


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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Today -100: December 11, 1919: Of strikes, deportations, prizes, and anti-Jews


The UMW accepts Pres. Wilson (or whoever)’s proposals and so advises coal miners to end their strike.

Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman appeal against deportation, saying sending them to White-occupied Russia would amount to a death sentence. I believe that’s a feature, not a bug.

No Nobel Peace Prizes will be awarded for the years 1918 and 1919.

The Anti-Jewish Party holds a meeting in Budapest, after which the crowd attacks two Jewish newspapers.

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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Today -100: December 10, 1919: Of excuses and non-communications


The NYT rejects Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer’s statement that social unrest derives more from economic conditions than the machinations of agitators. It’s tooootally the fault of agitators and Bolshevist propaganda, it says, and the economy is so great that the radicals are “absolutely without excuse.”

The fact checkers of the NYT telegraph Ernest Rutherford, asking whether he has in fact discovered how to transmute matter. “Have nothing to communicate,” he replies from atop a large pile of gold.


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Today -100: December 10, 1919: Of excuses and non-communications


The NYT rejects Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer’s statement that social unrest derives more from economic conditions than the machinations of agitators. It’s tooootally the fault of agitators and Bolshevist propaganda, it says, and the economy is so great that the radicals are “absolutely without excuse.”

The fact checkers of the NYT telegraph Ernest Rutherford, asking whether he has in fact discovered how to transmute matter. “Have nothing to communicate,” he replies from atop a large pile of gold.


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Monday, December 09, 2019

Today -100: December 9, 1919: I yearn to reach America on wings


Senate Foreign Committee Chair Henry Cabot Lodge kills the Fall Resolution calling on Wilson to cut off diplomatic relations with Mexico after he receives a letter from Wilson (or whoever) telling the Senate to butt out because this is the sole responsibility of whoever’s secretly doing the president’s job for him, that’s just the Constitution.

Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer says a special division of the Bureau of Investigation was created on August 1 to deal with “radicalism.” I guess the public didn’t know about this before now? Palmer doesn’t say who the special division’s head is, but it’s J. Edgar Hoover. Palmer admits that unrest and radicalism “arise from social and economic conditions that are of greater consequence than the individual agitators,” not that that’ll stop the mass arrests and deportations.

Poet-Aviator Gabriele D’Annunzio hopes, once Fiume is annexed by Italy, to fly to the US via the Pacific Ocean. “I yearn to reach America on wings,” he poet-aviates.

According to a Le Matin, physicist Ernest Rutherford has cracked the alchemical goal of the transmutation of matter. Good for him.

Although the coal strike seems near settlement, the government orders rationing, more extreme than during the war, limiting factory hours, closing dance halls, pool halls and bowling alleys after 11 pm, no lights on Broadway, etc. Maybe they could get Prof. Rutherford to transmute coal into diamonds. Or am I thinking Superman? Actually, has anyone ever seen Rutherford and Superman together?


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Sunday, December 08, 2019

Today -100: December 8, 1919: All the confidence I ever had in the pledges of the Allies has gone forever


Germany’s Minister of Defense Gustav Noske says Germany should continue to refuse to sign the peace protocol. “The time has come for Germany to resist to the uttermost. ... The peace now presented to us is not peace, but a prolongation of the war. ... Great Britain and France are deliberately planning the destruction of Germany. All the confidence I ever had in the pledges of the Allies has gone forever.” He’s not sure if the rest of the government will agree with him.

Another Sunday, another mass defiance of Baltimore’s Blue Laws. Except for the Auto Club, which closes all public garages, just to make the law obnoxious.

The UMW and the federal government are close to a deal to end the coal strike. Meanwhile, Butte, Montana is tearing down and burning all its old buildings for heat. In the Oklahoma coal fields, which are under martial law, the military arrests organizers and bans meetings.

In Kiel, Germany, a German escapes from a British steamer, the Helena. The British chase him through the streets, shooting at him. Investigating, the Kiel police find c.700 German prisoners of war who the British had dragooned into the Polish Legion to fight against Soviet Russia. Since the Helena was now in German waters, the men were no longer technically prisoners, so the cops ask if any of them would rather not continue their journey. 600 of them choose to leave the ship.


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Saturday, December 07, 2019

Today -100: December 7, 1919: Of premature insurrections and liberal educations


Lenin congratulates the Italian Socialists on their recent election victories but warns against premature insurrection. Wait for the right time, he advises.

A Sunday NYT Magazine article on how the Indians are becoming less “barbaric” quotes Commissioner of Indian Affairs Cato Sells’s contention that participation in the Great War was “in many ways a liberal education to the Indian, and he is coming out of it with greater individuality and a diminished tribal propensity.” He goes on and condescendingly on about the advances he wants for the Indians: better treatment of women, laughing babies, the wearing of pajamas, etc.


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Friday, December 06, 2019

Today -100: December 6, 1919: Of sickroom visits, coal, and lynchings


Senators Fall and Hitchcock, sent to the White House by the Foreign Relations Committee, see Pres. Wilson. They both declare themselves satisfied about his abilities to exercise his duties. Even Fall, not exactly a friend of the president, says he seems in pretty good shape – for someone who’s been in bed for ten weeks. Though he also says that he did most of the talking and didn’t ask any questions – in other words, he doesn’t really know how informed Wilson is about Mexico or anything else. The meeting (during which Wilson is carefully staged, propped up in his bed with his paralyzed arm hidden under a blanket) is interrupted by Wilson’s doctor, bringing the news that William Jenkins has been released.

There are reports that Jenkins tried to go back in, because someone paid his bail for him and he wants unconditional freedom because he’s an American, dammit.

Wilson also tells the senators that the responsibility for the peace treaty has shifted to others and he doesn’t plan on doing anything about it for a while. He evidently expects a groundswell of public demand for ratification.

Volunteer coal miners/scabs in Oklahoma include bank clerks, newspaper men, druggists, and Gov. James Robertson (a lawyer).  The article does not say how long he actually worked at the coal face or how much coal he dug. To save coal, drug store soda fountains are ordered closed, for some reason.

In a letter to Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge, the NAACP points out that if the US is going to demand protection for American citizens in Mexico, it might also demand protection from lynching for American citizens in America.


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Thursday, December 05, 2019

Today -100: December 5, 1919: Probably best not to google “only after enormous pressure from the ladies”


On a party-line vote, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee decides to send two senators (Fall & Hitchcock) to go to the White House and talk with Pres. Wilson about Mexico. Of course this is really a pretense to see if Wilson’s a drooling imbecile or dead or what (they’re being referred to in Washington as the Smelling Committee).

Meanwhile, in Mexico, consular agent William Jenkins, the cause of all the fuss, remains defiantly in prison, refusing to post bail.

Oklahoma Gov. James Robertson has called for volunteer scab coal miners during the strike, and will join them in mining some coal. They will be guarded by federal soldiers but Robertson has asked that no negro troops be sent as that “might involve us in unnecessary conflict and confusion.”

Missouri Gov. Frederick Gardner seizes 15 coal mines, which the state will operate itself to relieve the coal shortage. It’s trying to find scabs to run them. “The people of the state are freezing, and there is no time now to quibble over wages, rights of the mine operators and such minor problems.” He says the children of the Home for Feeble Minded are cold.

Poland claims there is a plot, led by German monarchists and pan-Germans, to foment a revolution in Silesia and seize power before Entente occupation troops are due to arrive.

Nancy Astor interjects in a Parliamentary debate on a women’s suffrage amendment to the Government of India Bill, responding to Secretary of State for India Edwin Montagu:


The amendment, opposed by the government, loses.

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Wednesday, December 04, 2019

Today -100: December 4, 1919: Of Renoirs, diplomatic relations, protocols, and coal


Auguste Renoir dies at 78, the same day as his painting Point Neuf (1872) sells for $10,000.



Sen. Albert Fall (R-New Mexico) introduces a resolution to break off relations with Mexico, which he claims is distributing Bolshevik propaganda in the US in order to overthrow its government. Sen. John Shields (D-Tenn.) says we should skip that step and just go straight to war. 

Germany refuses to sign the protocol to implement the peace treaty. In part this is because the Allies are demanding compensation for the scuttling of the German fleet at Scapa Flow in June, which Germany says it isn’t responsible for because Adm. von Reuter ordered it on his own. Germany also objects to “the paragraph which would permit the invasion of our country by armed forces in times of peace on any trivial pretext.”

Some of the larger coal companies have settled with the union, for more than the government’s 14% pay increase.

South Dakota ratifies the women’s suffrage Amendment. 21 down, 15 to go.


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Tuesday, December 03, 2019

Today -100: December 3, 1919: Of steady improvement, States of the Unionses, and relativity and ether


Headline of the Day -100: 


Some members of Congress are beginning to believe that they’re being lied to about the president’s actual state of health and capabilities.

President Wilson (or whomever) issues the State of the Union report, the first time he doesn’t give it in person. Republicans point out that it just repeats the main points of previous years’ addresses without adding anything new.  Others complain that it didn’t say enough about Crushing the Reds, although it does warn against minorities seeking to impose their will – just like in Russia, with its “blood and terror.” There is also nothing about a way forward to making peace, so Republican senators will move forward with declaring the existence of a state of peace through a joint resolution.

A NYT reporter visits Albert Einstein to ask him to explain relativity. Einstein says that the thought process that led to the theory was begun by seeing a neighbor fall off a roof. He explains to the reporter, no doubt suppressing an eye roll, that there is no such thing as ether.


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Monday, December 02, 2019

Today -100: December 2, 1919: The main object of the kidnapping was political


US Sen. Truman Newberry (R-Michigan) and 134 others are indicted for fraud, corruption and conspiracy during his election campaign last year. The grand jury also claims that James Helme was paid by the Newberry campaign to run in the Democratic primary against Henry Ford.

As the US issues another demand to Mexico to release William Jenkins, the consular agent Mexico believes was complicit in his own “kidnapping,” a demand which ignores the fact that he could just pay a tiny bail and get out of prison, the bandit Federico Cordova who kidnapped, or “kidnapped,” Jenkins makes a statement that it was actually not about the money but a protest against the dictatorial Carranza government.

The UMW rejects Fuel Administrator Harry Garfield’s take-it-or-leave-it 14% pay increase, holding out for Labor Secretary Wilson’s 31%. Garfield orders coal rationing of coal: shutting off theatre lights at night etc.

The Italian parliament is opened by King Victor Emmanuel. The Socialists do not join the standing ovation for the king; they then yell “Long live Socialism” and walk out.

Nancy Astor takes her seat in Parliament, and if you want to know what she was wearing, the NYT will be pleased to oblige you. Right afterwards an MP begins a speech (on premium bonds), with the words “We are all men of the world...” before being reminded that they were not. #NotAll...

North Dakota ratifies the women’s suffrage Amendment. 20 down, 16 to go.

Prohibition Commissioner John Kramer says hair tonics containing alcohol must be made undrinkable.

Headline of the Day -100: 


So rules a judge in dismissing a Blue Laws case against a “boy” delivering pies on a Sunday. Many of those arrested for infractions of the 1723 law are demanding jury trials, which may well kill off the Baltimore PD’s little crusade.


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Sunday, December 01, 2019

Today -100: December 1, 1919: We refuse to renounce our right to revolution19: We refuse to renounce our right to revolution


The government responds to the hunger strike by alleged radicals at Ellis Island by speeding up their deportation hearings, and I mean really speeding them up.

Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge shows no interest in negotiating with Pres. Wilson or his surrogates about the peace treaty, declaring the Republican reservations the “irreducible minimum.” He says the 14 reservations don’t nullify the treaty, they “Americanize” it. FACT CHECK: they would totally nullify it. Lodge suggests that if Wilson wants the treaty passed, he merely has to accept every word of the reservations without change.

The reason Yugoslavia refused to sign the peace treaty with Austria (which the US Senate hasn’t even started on yet) is that it was expected to pay the indemnities due to Serbia itself. That is, the responsibility for war damages would be assumed by the territories that were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1914 but have since been absorbed into Yugoslavia. They’d also be responsible for the Empire’s pre-war debt.

Detroit Police Commissioner James Inches (a doctor, by the way) forces the band at an IWW meeting to play the Star-Spangled Banner (the Marseillaise and “a Russian anthem” had already played). Inches, who had prohibited Big Bill Haywood from speaking, also orders the crowd to stand during the song.

A Socialist just elected to the French parliament (representing Paris) says “We refuse to renounce our right to revolution.” That’s future prime minister Léon Blum. He does add that the French socialists don’t intend to adopt the methods used by the Bolsheviks in Russia, which had different circumstances.

James Weldon Johnson, field secretary and soon to be head of the NAACP, suggests blacks strike as a protest against lynchings. “The negro must discover the elements of force within himself, for he will get only so much as he will take”. He notes Pres. Wilson’s weak stance on lynching.

A grand jury in Baltimore orders the enforcement of the Sunday Blue Laws (enacted in 1723), but newsboys, confectioners, bootblacks etc. ignore it. Many ice cream truck drivers are arrested, released, and go right back to their business. Barbers are also arrested. Gas stations do close.


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Saturday, November 30, 2019

Today -100: November 30, 1919: Of war criminals, boudoirs, hunts & heels


Germany asks the Allies to give up their demand for alleged war criminals, including the former kaiser, in exchange for Germany not objecting to treaty commissions being set up without any Americans on them. Germany is holding off signing the treaty protocols in the hopes of using the American failure to ratify the peace treaty to extract concessions.

Emma Goldman is ordered deported.

A House of Commons tea-room is being re-purposed for the use of Lady Astor. It has “a dressing table and other appointments never before seen in the House”. It is being called the “boudoir,” because of course it fucking is. The Morning Post: “The House of Commons must now prepare to become one of the curious institutions that are colloquially styled ‘Cock-and-Hen Clubs.’” The Daily Telegraph thinks that her election is due to Astor’s personality and to local circumstances in Plymouth and won’t soon be replicated by other women.

Sinn Féin prevents a stag hunt in County Down because a commander of the Royal Irish Constabulary is being allowed to take part. His name is Gen. William Hacket Pain, which is what he would be named if he was a character in a Dickens novel and Dickens was Irish.

An ad asks the question


“What is being advertised?” you might well ask. O’Sullivan’s Heels. They’re rubber. They “absorb the shocks that tire you out.”



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Friday, November 29, 2019

Today -100: November 29, 1919: Of volunteer miners, sex candidates, guilty candy man, and other phrases probably best not searched for on PornHub


The federal government warns coal miners and coal company owners that it will prosecute any interference with coal production. The owners are expected to give miners the 14% raise Fuel Administrator Harry Garfield called for.

3,500 people have answered Kansas Gov. Henry Allen (R)’s call for volunteers to mine coal during the coal shortage. They’re mostly college students: the University of Kansas will give credits for coal-mining, which has to be a higher-educational first.

The Tacoma City Council decides to let the 22 hunger-striking IWWers starve.

Lady Nancy Astor is elected to Parliament with a strong majority. She tells the NYT that she didn’t run as a sex candidate but found a general feeling that there should be “at least” one woman in Parliament. Astor is not the first woman elected to Parliament, but the Countess Markievicz, elected in 1918, is Sinn Féin and thus wouldn’t take the oath to the king and take her seat (also she was in prison at the time). Astor does not plan to wear full evening dress in the Commons, hoping to set a precedent for women of lesser financial means who might follow her.

Headline of the Day -100: 



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Thursday, November 28, 2019

Today -100: November 28, 1919: One may always hope


A large meteor hits Lake Michigan. Maybe.

Bulgaria signs the peace treaty. However Yugoslavia and Romania do not; they’ve been told they can only sign the treaty with Bulgaria after signing the one with Austria, which they refuse to do because it includes clauses for protection of their minorities. The Bulgaria treaty is called the Treaty of Neuilly, because everyone is bored with signing ceremonies so they just held it in the mayor’s office in that town.

A French diplomat on service in the Far East (Singapore?) met an American actress and eloped to marry her in Mongolia, as you do. The marriage was performed by a Belgian missionary. After a few days, he abandoned her, as you do. A French court annuls the marriage because a Frenchman marrying abroad must either marry in front of a French diplomatic officer or according to the usages of the local country, which in the case of Mongolia required him to either kidnap or buy his wife, and he did neither.

Woodrow Wilson has Thanksgiving in bed. Wait, that’s an option? His doctor forbids turkey for the president but allows quail.

Headline of the Day -100: 


Paris Police Chief Raux, asked if Paris would see dancing again, says “One may always hope.”


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Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Today -100: November 27, 1919: Of reservations, military control, firing squads, pan-Germans, and opera


China says if the US is allowed to add reservations to its signature on the peace treaty, it should be too.

The 15th Cavalry seize 52 foreign striking miners from a mining camp in Wyoming. Evidently they can do that because the state is “under military control.” In Monarch, WY, the soldiers round up miners and force them to vote to return to work. Secretary of War Newton Baker evidently had no idea this was going on, says it’s “inconceivable” that an army officer would order the arrest of strikers, but he’s waiting for an official report.

Mexico, after taking a long time to reply to the US’s demand, refuses to release consular agent William Jenkins, pointing out that there is no principle of international right behind the US demand and that the decision is up to the courts and the state of Puebla, not the federal government.

Mexico executes Gen. Felipe Ángeles, who defected to Pancho Villa in 1914 and again in 1918, by firing squad, as was the custom.

Britain bans Sinn Féin and associated groups in Ireland. The government is finally planning to go ahead with its mutilated Home Rule legislation, and is worried that SF, by far the most popular party in Ireland, won’t cooperate. Or that it will use the Dublin Parliament to declare independence.

Where Labor Secretary William Wilson suggested a 31% pay increase for coal miners as equitable given cost-of-living increases, Fuel Administrator Harry Garfield (son of the former president) thinks 14% is plenty, and also that mine owners should absorb it without increasing prices to the public. The unions prefer 31% and dismiss Garfield out of hand.

Gen. Erich Ludendorff graciously agrees to help lead the Pan-Germans. He gives a speech at the Potsdam Garrison Church attended by many soldiers garrisoned in Potsdam on “Militarism as a School for Moral Qualification of Successful Men.” Correspondent George Renwick insists that “the silly goings on of Ludendorff and people like him... are not even the prelude to a counter-revolutionary coup.” Spoiler Alert: well, not a successful one.

The House of Commons rejects a bill to allow peers to give up their peerages and allow Viscount Astor in particular to remain eligible to sit in the Commons. Mrs Astor had said if she was elected to his seat and this bill passed, she’d resign in his favor. The Commons also agrees with the decision the Lords made not to let girls in, we’re looking at you Viscountess Rhondda.

German opera is once again nipped in the bud in New York. The North German Society of Queens had plans to perform Strauss’s “Der weiße Hirsch” in Astoria, but American Legionites surrounded the hall...


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Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Today -100: November 26, 1919: Of poison gas, little people, nominal dictatorships, and coffee shops


The Chief of the General Staff of the Army Gen. Peyton March puts out a statement that the use of poison gas is war is actually humane, because it puts soldiers out of action while killing a smaller percentage of them than other means.

73 radicals awaiting deportation on Ellis Island go on hunger strike to protest the wire separating them from visitors.

Federal agents raid the hq of the Union of Russian Workers in NYC and claim to have discovered lots of explosives in a secret room.

Lavinia Warren, aka Countess Magri, the well-known little person (2 foot 8 and at most 29 pounds), the widow of “General Tom Thumb” (2’10”) and wife of “Count” Primo Magri (2’8”), dies at 77 or 78.

The Allies have to postpone putting the peace treaty into effect because the Germans are refusing to sign the protocols, probably because they don’t want commissions set up without Americans to balance out delegates from more vengeful countries (looking at you, France).

In Alabama, 12 white men are actually punished for a lynching. With fines, but still, punished. Oh, wait, the victim was white.

Adm. Kolchak’s evacuation of Omsk and full retreat has the West thinking the anti-Bolshevik “All-Russian Government” may not be doing too well and that Kolchak may soon be reduced to only “nominal dictatorship.”

Theodore Roosevelt’s three living sons and miscellaneous other relatives open  The Brazilian Coffee House, the first of a planned chain of coffee houses. Which is a new thing in New York. The manager has to explain that it is not a restaurant but a coffee house like those in London in Addison and Steele’s time, or Paris and Brazil today. He explains that Americans don’t yet appreciate coffee made properly. Kermit Roosevelt got the idea on a trip to Brazil before the war.


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Monday, November 25, 2019

Today -100: November 25, 1919: Do not let the Italian people have the hateful feeling that the great American democracy opposes what is just


Italy’s proposals to settle the Fiume issue – Fiume and vicinity to be a buffer state and Zara a free city, Italy to build a port on the Adriatic for Yugoslavia – are rejected by the US. Italian PM Francesco Nitti appeals through the AP to the American people: “Do not let the Italian people have the hateful feeling that the great American democracy opposes what is just.”

The Star Opera Company, the one that ran into trouble from mobs of ex-soldiers and NY Mayor Hylan when it attempted to perform German opera, has gone bankrupt as a direct result, having laid out money for costumes, scenery etc for performances that never happened.

The British government announces that it won’t release any of the hunger-striking Irish political prisoners (nor is it forcibly feeding them). It will also suspend jury trials in Ireland.

Headline of the Day -100: 


Rumors about the newly elected Socialists in the Italian parliament. They don’t support monarchy.

The New York Telephone Company is installing automatic switchboards which will enable customers to make calls without going through an operator. The company explains that people will indicate their desired number “by manipulating a dial attached to the telephone instrument. This dial is equipped with ten finger holes, each carrying one of the ten numerals. To call a number the subscriber simply places his finger in the hole corresponding to the first digit of the number desired, pulls the dial around to the finger stop, allows it to return to its original position, and does the same for each other digit of the number....” Wow, the future is now.


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Sunday, November 24, 2019

Today -100: November 24, 1919: Take care they do not make you become a Croat


Republican party leaders repudiate Sen. Lodge’s desire to fight the 1920 elections on the issue of the treaty, saying they expect some sort of compromise before then. Presumably they realized that it sounded like Lodge is playing partisan politics with the end of the war, if only because that’s what he was doing.

The Republican Club of Massachusetts wants Gov. Calvin Coolidge to run for president.

A week after D’Annunzio’s forces invaded Zara, Italian censorship finally allows the Italian press to report it. In Zara the poet-aviator, speaking from (naturally) a balcony, tells of meeting a little girl there who he told “Take care they do not make you become a Croat,” to which she replied “Not until our Maggiore Mountain falls into the sea.”

Vice President Whatsisname is interrupted in the middle of giving a speech to the Order of Moose in Atlanta by a phone message that Pres. Wilson had died. He asks everyone in the hall for their help, then, possibly while the organist is still playing Nearer My God to Thee, phones the AP, which informs him that the report is false. Gov. Dorsey offers a $100 reward for the identity of the hoax caller.


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Saturday, November 23, 2019

Today -100: November 23, 1919: Pigs caused the war


Sen. Warren G. Harding (R-Ohio) informally announces his candidacy for president (that is, he gets someone else to do it for him, because he’s shy) (or too busy fucking his mistress) (hashtag #presidential). He previously said he wouldn’t run. National Republican leaders are trying to get a bunch of “favorite son” candidates into the field in order to head off Gen. Leonard Wood and to divide up the delegates between them, leaving it to the party grandees to pick the candidate at the convention in a smoke-filled room, like God intended.

Democratic candidates aren’t declaring themselves yet because they’re politely waiting for Woodrow Wilson to make it official that he’s not running for a third term and Wilson, well, you know.

Coal miners accept Secretary of Labor William Wilson’s pay increase proposals, which he based on cost-of-living increases in the coal districts. Coal owners do not, and say they will no longer deal with Wilson because they accuse the Secretary of Labor of speaking with... labor.

Prof. Richard Lynch Garner, who, as we have seen, claims to have captured the Missing Link and to be able to speak with monkeys, sues a photography company for $100,000 because a picture of theirs ran in a number of newspapers supposedly showing the good professor kissing a monkey. The company says the picture was of a monkey trainer and it was the newspapers that said it was Garner. Beyond the identification issue, Garner’s complaint mentions the fact that the chimp in question was chained up, a practice Garner objects to; “He has also disapproved the custom or practice of embracing or kissing animals.”

The NYT Sunday Magazine has an excerpt from a Justice Department report on “Radicalism and Sedition Among the Negroes, As Reflected in Their Publications.” Many of these publications, the report says, are “always antagonistic to the white race, and openly, defiantly assertive of its own equality and even superiority” and they show “insolently race-centered condemnation of the white race”.

Headline of the Day -100: 


Not specific pigs. Count Carl Seilern, a former adviser to the former Austrian emperor, attributes the hostility between Serbia and Austria in the 15 years or so before the war to Austria cutting off the sale of Serb pigs to Hungary.

The North Dakota Supreme Court says Gov. Lynn Frazier (Non-Partisan League) can’t just take over the coal mines. Justice James Robinson’s opinion complains about laws “pandering to the labor vote [which] permit and encourage strikes, picketing and idleness” and limit work to 8 hours a day. He further complains that “without any grievance our well-paid miners have quit work and struck pursuant to orders from some labor agitators.”

The Women’s Christian Temperance Union decides not to try to get tobacco banned.


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Friday, November 22, 2019

Today -100: November 22, 1919: A question between patriotism and politics


Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge (R-Mass.) issues a statement:  “After four months of careful consideration and discussion, the reservations were presented to the Senate. They were purely American in their character, designed solely to Americanize the treaty and make it safe for the United States.” The reservations were voted down “under the President’s orders,” he says, but there was also a majority against the treaty without the reservations. “There is no room for further compromise between Americanism and the super-government presented by the League. All I ask now is that we may have the opportunity to lay those reservations before the American people.” In other words, he plans to fight the 1920 elections on this issue.

Acting Senate minority leader George Hitchcock (D-Neb.) responds: “It would be entirely welcome to us if the reservations should be taken into the campaign, but I do not consider that it would be very patriotic. It appears to have become a question between patriotism and politics. The patriotic thing to do is to work out a compromise.”

The US threatens to invade Mexico (again) if it does not release consular agent William Jenkins, who is under arrest for allegedly masterminding his own “kidnapping.”

The Supreme Council of the Allies decides that Eastern Galicia will go to Poland for the next 25 years as a League of Nations mandate and then become part of Poland properly.

Yet another dastardly Red plot is uncovered, this one to murder the head of the NYPD bomb squad, an assistant district attorney and a Justice Dept agent. The latter two are engaged in anti-Red investigations in New York.


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Thursday, November 21, 2019

Today -100: November 21, 1919: Some detective force!


France, Britain and Italy will put the Treaty of Versailles into effect in December, without waiting for the dubious prospect of US participation.

Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge (R-Mass.) says the peace treaty is “inert.” Sen. George Hitchcock (D-Neb.) disagrees.

A couple of days ago there was a train robbery in Wyoming, which was believed to have been pulled off by “Wild Bill” Carlisle, who a few days before escaped from prison, where he was serving a sentence for train robbery. Now Carlisle walks into a Western Union office in Casper, Wyoming and sends a telegram to the Union Pacific Railroad offices: “Thanks for haul on your limited. Some detective force!”


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Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Today -100: November 20, 1919: So, still at war with Germany then


The US Senate votes on the peace treaty three times. With Henry Cabot Lodge’s reservations attached to it, it loses 39-55, after a letter is read from Pres. Wilson (or whomever) to Democrats saying that the reservations amount to nullification and urging rejection. Another vote on the amended treaty loses 41-50. Finally, a vote on the treaty without reservations loses 38-53. All attempts at even beginning to craft a compromise fail. Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge says the treaty is dead and he’ll introduce a simple resolution to the effect that the war is over. The Senate then adjourns. Wilson may re-submit the treaty next session (December).

The Philadelphia police claim to have uncovered a Red plot to send mail bombs disguised as Christmas gifts to officials all over the country involved in the persecution of alleged radicals.

NYC is investigating teachers believed to be members of the Communist Party and firing them.


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Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Today -100: November 19, 1919: If they’d had the internet it would have been Warry McWarFace


Pres. Wilson is again wheeled onto the White House lawn, where he is “much interested” in the flock of sheep there. I think that’s literal sheep, but you never know in Washington.

Headline of the Day -100: 


Official according to the US War Department. 

When Hungary has elections in December (in the unoccupied parts of the country anyway), men and women over 24 will have the vote, plus younger men who served at least 13 weeks at the front.


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Monday, November 18, 2019

Today -100: November 18, 1919: Zara today, Spalato tomorrow!


Woodrow Wilson is rolled on to the White House lawn, er, in a wheel chair, the first time he has left the building since the beginning of last month. Mary Pickford drops by, but is not allowed to see the president. So I guess she just shows up places?

And we’ve finally heard from Wilson (or whomever) on what he will do if the reservations to the peace treaty pass: he will pocket veto it (or just “pocket” it? – can a treaty be vetoed?). There is some talk of possible compromises that he might accept (Sen. George Hitchcock passes this on to the Senate while staying reticent on some of the details, possibly because Mrs. Wilson hasn’t decided on them yet). The Senate is still working on reservations (40 more to vote on!).

Ernest Lundeen, until recently the Republican congresscritter for Minnesota’s 5th district, in which capacity he voted against entering the Great War and against conscription, is about to speak in the Orontville, Minn. opera house against the League of Nations when a bunch of American Legion types (and the sheriff) grab him, march him to the train station and lock him in a refrigerated car on an outbound train, as was the custom.

Poet-Aviator Gabriele D’Annunzio is given (presumably by himself) a new title: Commander of Fiume and Commander of Dalmatia. On his triumphal entry into conquered Zara, he proclaims “It is Zara today, it will be Spalato [Split] tomorrow.” Censorship is keeping news of this out of Italian newspapers.


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Sunday, November 17, 2019

Today -100: November 17, 1919: Fortunately, we had guns and ammunition


Ludwig Martens of the Russian Soviet Government Bureau in New York says that many large US businesses are aiding Soviet agents pushing for US recognition of the Soviet government. He presents himself as interested only in restoring trade relations, not spreading revolutionary propaganda.

Mexico arrests US businessman and consular agent William Jenkins for being complicit in his “kidnapping.”

Lady Astor: “There is a place in politics for women. They have the spiritual qualities needed in politics. Men may have them, but they haven’t the courage to show them.”

The center & right do well in French parliamentary elections, Socialists not so much. The clergy, who in the past boycotted the polls because of the Vatican’s displeasure at the introduction of secular education in public schools, seem to be voting this time.

A black man is lynched in Moberly, Missouri, one of 4 who allegedly beat up a man and robbed him of $12. The other 3 may or may not have escaped.

French aviator Etienne Polet, who is trying to fly from Paris to Australia, was forced by engine trouble to land in India. He wires: “One day the inhabitants wished to kill us, taking us for devils. Fortunately, we had guns and ammunition.”


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Saturday, November 16, 2019

Today -100: November 16, 1919: The breath of life will never be put in it again


Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer sends the Senate a draft of a proposed anti-sedition law aimed at the IWW, communists, etc. He sorrowfully reports that at present “the preaching of anarchy and sedition is not a crime under the general criminal statutes of the United States,” nor is “openly advocating the unlawful obstruction of industry”.

18 miles from Centralia, Washington, two American Legion posses exchange shots with IWWers, killing one of the former. The article has a long quotation from a “confession” by one Wobbly, which said the IWW planned the Centralia clash 3 weeks in advance, although it actually sounds like he said they planned to defend the IWW hall if it was attacked.

The San Francisco police order all IWW members to leave the city.

Senate Republicans adopt 10 more reservations to the peace treaty. Some exempt the US from various activities of the League of Nations, others reserve to Congress decisions on accepting mandates or paying League dues. Democrats promise to vote down ratification of the treaty so amended, after which, Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge (R-Mass.) says, “the treaty may be considered as dead. It may lie in the Senate inert, but the breath of life will never be put in it again.”

Ludwig Martens of the Russian Soviet Government Bureau, the self-proclaimed embassy of Soviet Russia in New York, rejects a subpoena from the Lusk Committee of the NY Legislature.

Gabriele D’Annunzio invades Zara (aka Zadar), the capital of (Yugoslav) Dalmatia, evidently in order to revive Italian enthusiasm for his little Fiume adventure ahead of Italian parliamentary elections. Yugoslavia, afraid of an all-out war, is not putting up resistance.


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Friday, November 15, 2019

Today -100: November 15, 1919: Of porches, vigilante legions, and Bolshevik et anti-Bolsheviki


On Armistice Day, Pres. Wilson was allowed out of bed for the first time since returning to the White House, in a wheeled chair. Today he was rolled to the rear porch. Did no one find it strange that he’d been confined to bed for a month and a half, with no explanation of his condition offered beyond “nervous exhaustion?”

Members of the American Legion are sworn in as special constables in Spokane, which is expecting a mass invasion of Wobblies. 52 supposed Wobblies have already been convicted of “criminal anarchy.” They refused to put up a defense and were sentenced to 30 days and a $100 fine. In Kansas City, Poughkeepsie and elsewhere, American Legion branches are organizing vigilante squads.

The Centralia, Washington coroner’s jury fails to place the blame for the deaths of those 4 American Legionnaires on the IWW, after hearing testimony that the Legion attacked the IWW hall. But the prosecutor says he has other witnesses who say shots were fired before the attack on the building.

The NYT says the only issue in the French parliamentary elections is “Bolshevik et anti-Bolsheviki.”

Italy raises its blockade on Fiume.

Yesterday I marked what I think is Mussolini’s first mention in the NYT. Then today’s would be the second. Not all of it is legible, but someone is killed and 8 more wounded when a gunfight breaks out at an election meeting in Lodi at which the future Duce is speaking.


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Thursday, November 14, 2019

Today -100: November 14, 1919: What won the war? Rum!


The Senate votes 46-33 to attach reservations to Article X of the peace treaty, the mutual defense provision, saying the US isn’t obligated to do anything. At all. Ever. Pres. Wilson once described this idea as a knife thrust at the heart of the treaty, and he’s not wrong. The vote is almost entirely partisan.

A letter from Lenin to Turkestan Communists celebrating restored communications between Russia and Turkestan as “open[ing] the way for a struggle against universal imperialism headed by Great Britain” is taken as a threat against British India.

North Dakota takes over the 30 union coal mines in the state, coal companies protesting all the while.

More Palmer Raids™ on IWW branches in Washington and Oregon. Washington Gov. Louis Hart (R) says he will wipe out the IWW in his state. As does Gov. Samuel McKelvie (R) of Nebraska, who wants any member arrested and charged under “criminal syndicalism” laws.

The visiting American prohibitionist “Pussyfoot” Johnson is kidnapped from his speech at Essex Hall, London, by medical students and forcibly taken along the Strand to Oxford Circus, hit with flour and other objects, one of which will cause him to lose an eye, etc. They have rough banners saying things like “What won the war? Rum!”

Supposedly Austria, which is in terrible economic shape and whose newborns are dying of cold in large numbers because of lack of coal, is considering simply dissolving the Austrian Republic and allowing each province to declare itself part of Germany.

The Catholic Committee of Rome, whatever that might be, wants the newspaper Popolo Italia prosecuted for insulting the pope. The NYT doesn’t describe the nature of the insult, but the paper is edited by one “Professor Benito Mussolini.” This may well be the first mention of him in the NYT.

A letter from Samuel James Meltzer, a physiologist, recounts the discussion of Einstein’s theories at the National Academy of Sciences on Monday. One speaker called Einstein a mere philosopher (ignoring the scientific evidence from the solar eclipse), which he ascribes to Einstein being a Jew. The second speaker pointed out that Einstein wanted Germany to lose the world war, and that cancels out his Jewiness. Comments Meltzer, “Undoubtedly the mental rays of some of our scientists suffered a more or less perceptible deviation from the normal, brought about by the course of Mars in the last four years.”

Headline of the Day -100: 


I get anarchist gases every time I eat beans.

Sorry.


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Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Today -100: November 13, 1919: Law and order shall prevail


A mob of veterans break into the Oakland, California hq of the Communist Labor Party, destroying it and burning furniture and literature. The police were warned in advance, but chose not to protect the building. The mob leaves a note: “Hereafter, Oakland will be unsafe for radicals and for anti-Government propaganda. Law and order shall prevail.” Some law. Some order.

Wobblies are arrested all over Washington State, following the Centralia contretemps.

Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer plans to deport radicals to Russia, but won’t say to what part of Russia.

Lady Nancy Astor accuses the Labour candidate running against her of being “a red-hot independent of the type that advocates all sorts of Trotsky-tainted issues.”

I went to my doctor with Trotsky-tainted issues and he prescribed an ointment.

Headline of the Day -100: 



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Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Today -100: November 12, 1919: I think that I would rather perish in the exclusive company of members of my own sex


The non-alien Communists will evidently be tried under state law. In NYC, Chief Magistrate William McAdoo reads the constitution of the Communist International Party and declares it to be an “organized conspiracy against the United States Government and the Government of the State of New York, and each member of the party is guilty and responsible for the acts, writings and sayings of each and every member,” astonishingly citing as precedent the cases arising from the Gordon Riots in London in 1780. He then insisted that the US is at war with Russia.

Headline of the Day -100: 


Actually, there are two versions of this, one in which Wobbly snipers shoot at members of the American Legion marching in an Armistice Day parade in Centralia, Washington, and another version (which makes no appearance in the NYT) in which the Legionistas storm the IWW Hall and the Wobblies shoot in self-defense. Either way, 4 veterans are dead, and the rest lynch Wobbly Wesley Everest (not Britt Smith as the article says) and dump his body in the river, as was the custom. Tensions already existed in the town: last month the Citizens’ Protective League announced plans to drive radicals out of the city.

The White House reports that Pres. Wilson has sat up for the first time in well over a month “and is declared to have been none the worse for his experience.”

The British House of Lords rejects a measure to allow women to sit in the Lords. The Lord Chancellor the Earl of Birkenhead (an Anti-suffragist from way back), moving rejection, says “If we [the Lords] are to be abolished, I think that I would rather perish in the exclusive company of members of my own sex.” Lord Haldane expresses surprise that Birkenhead did not wish “to see the gentle touch of ministering angels about us at the moment that that extinction came.”

Many coal miners are obeying the court and going back to work, but North Dakota’s Gov. Lynn Frazier (Non-Partisan League) takes advantage of the strike to proclaim martial law and seize control of the mines.

Ohio voters rejected ratification of the Prohibition Amendment (which has of course already been ratified) by a narrow majority.

Headline of the Day -100:  


Demanding them from Germany, anyway. They don’t just go around demanding cows from passing strangers. Probably. 


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Monday, November 11, 2019

Today -100: November 11, 1919: Of injunctions, cops, cut and dried affairs, raids, and captains


The UMW are still debating whether to obey that federal judge’s order to call off the strike.

Boston has 600 new cops, mostly ex-military, to replace the fired strikers.

The House of Representatives votes 309-1 not to seat Victor Berger, the elected Socialist congressman from Wisconsin’s 5th district who was convicted earlier this year under the Espionage Act (the conviction will be overturned by the Supreme Court in 1921). Before the vote, Berger addressed the House, saying he expected his ejection to be a “cut and dried affair” because “I am a Socialist and an opponent of war and profiteering.” He says he takes back none of his words. He notes that the “conspiracy” of which he was convicted was with four other Socialists he hadn’t actually met, much less conspired with; the prosecutors claimed the conspiracy consisted of a “meeting of minds” because they all belonged to the Socialist Party. He points out that his position of neutrality in the war was the same as that expressed by Woodrow Wilson in 1916. The seat is declared vacant.

More Palmer Raids™: the government now holds 391 aliens under deportation warrants. For some reason 145 of those were arrested in Hartford.

Capt. William Turner of the Cunard Line retires. He was the captain of the Lusitania when it was sunk, and another ship that was sunk in 1917. He has (somehow) reached the mandatory retirement age of 63.


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Sunday, November 10, 2019

Today -100: November 10, 1919: Only astronomers are affected. Also: in your face, Newton!


The American Federation of Labor calls the injunction against the coal strike so “autocratic” as to “stagger the human mind” and offers its support to the miners.

More Palmer Raids™ Saturday, on 71 “radical headquarters.” 25 tons of literature are seized, including addresses from Lenin to the US people and “disguised or open pleas for revolution in many languages”. Assistant US Attorney General Francis Garvan says the Federation of Unions of Russian Workers approved a plan for the overthrow of the US government via assassinations and bombings. The document, captured in the Baltimore raid, was printed only in Russian. So they’re planning to deport any alien who’s a member.

Evidently Russian plans for a world revolutionary uprising on the 7th were thwarted by various governments (Germany, Italy) taking “stern measures,” or simply came to nothing (Switzerland).

Headline of the Day -100: 


This is the dethronement of Isaac Newton by Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity. He published the theory in 1916, but it has now been proven by Arthur Eddington’s expedition to the island of Principe and Andrew Crommelin’s to Brazil last May to observe the solar eclipse and measure the bending of light. If you want a proper explanation of that, it won’t come from the president of the Royal Society, where these results are presented. He says it’s pointless to try to explain relativity to the man in the street. But there are several books just out for the centenary, including one with the title Einstein’s War: How Relativity Triumphed Amid the Vicious Nationalism of World War I. Astronomer W.J.S. Lockyer (son of the inventor of helium) says Einstein’s discoveries “do not personally concern ordinary human beings; only astronomers are affected.”

Parliamentary candidate Lady Nancy Astor says “Women are essential to the introduction of a policy of thrifty, national housekeeping, which is imperative to establishing the empire on a sound post-war foundation.” I wonder how many servants it takes to oversee the thrifty housekeeping at Cliveden.


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Saturday, November 09, 2019

Today -100: November 9, 1919: The first big step to rid the country of these foreign trouble-makers


Federal judge A.B. Anderson orders the UMW to rescind its coal strike order, which he says violates the (wartime) Food and Fuel Control Act.

The Senate passes the first “reservation” to the Peace Treaty, saying that if the US leaves the League of Nations, the US will be the sole judge of whether it has met its obligations. The vote, 50-35 with all R’s voting in favor, is strong enough to suggest that all the Lodge Reservations will pass.

35 of those seized during the Palmer Raid on the Russian People’s House are sent to Ellis Island for deportation, and 150 released. “Most of them also had blackened eyes and lacerated scalps as souvenirs of the new attitude of aggressiveness which has been assumed by the Federal agents against Reds and suspected Reds.” Other “reds” seized in other Raids throughout the country are also sent to Ellis Island. Says Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, “This is the first big step to rid the country of these foreign trouble-makers.”

Germany is also arresting its trouble-makers, members of the Communist and Independent Social Democratic parties who were preparing to, wait for it, celebrate the 2nd anniversary of the Russian Revolution.

The Supreme Council of the peace conference orders Britain to release Austrian POWs.

British Prime Minister Lloyd George endorses Nancy Astor, saying Parliament needs “woman’s point of view presented by a woman” on, you know, women’s issues like housing, child welfare, prices and other things men don’t care about.

New York decides to build a tunnel to Staten Island. Now the only question is whether it will connect SI with Brooklyn or Manhattan. Spoiler Alert: construction will begin in 1923 but never finish.

NYU Medical College admits its first women students.


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Friday, November 08, 2019

Today -100: November 8, 1919: Of Palmer Raids, egg stamping, assassinations, and monocles


Headline of the Day -100: 

The Palmer Raids™ begin, in NYC, Detroit, Philadelphia, Newark, Jackson... Scores are held for deportation as “criminal anarchists.” The NYPD prevents a meeting of the Communist Labor Party to celebrate the anniversary of the Russian Revolution. The Russian People’s House is raided by NYPD under federal orders and 200 arrested, some badly beaten; those with US citizenship are released.

Headline of the Day -100: 


Thomas Brewster, the chair of the Coal Operators' Scale Committee, says the coal strike is being financed by Lenin and Trotsky.

Hugo Haase, leader of the German Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), dies a month after being assassinated by one Johann Voss who Haase, a lawyer, was prosecuting for extortion.

Headline of the Day -100:  



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Thursday, November 07, 2019

Today -100: November 7, 1919: Of superior rights, lady pilots, and ransoms


The federal government will ask a federal judge to order UMW officials, who are already under injunction not to direct the coal strike, to call off that strike. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer says there are some callings so important that “the right to strike in those cases must be subordinated to the superior right of the public to enjoy uninterrupted service.” He also suggests that the public respond to the higher cost of living not by strikes, but by spending less and saving more, wearing old clothes, that sort of thing, the sort of helpful life advice the rich like to dispense to the poor. Secretary of Labor William Wilson was against going the injunction route, but was overruled in Cabinet.

The Aero Club, which is organizing an around-the-world aerial derby for next summer, with a prize of $1 million, says women pilots (the word elegant if sexist word aviatrix hasn’t been coined yet) may enter.

The State Department says that William Jenkins, the consular agent kidnapped – or possibly “kidnapped” – in Mexico will have to reimburse the ransom paid for him; the US won’t pressure Mexico to pay it unless some negligence by it can be found.


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